Program Tv History


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Program Tv History

Im Finale sollen die Schmiede einen deutschen Dussack herstellen. Never miss your favorite show again! History (American TV network) Language; Watch; Edit. Das TV Programm von History für heute und Uhr. Das Fernsehprogramm für den Sender History bei TV Movie. Filmová databáze ( - TV program vašich oblíbených stanic 3SAT, PRO7, History Channel, History Channel HD.

Das HISTORY HD TV-Programm von heute - alle Sendungen im Überblick

Oak Island - Fluch und Legende. Teamgeist. Die Dokumentation erzählt die Geschichte von Englands Krone von William dem Eroberer bis Prinz William. Kriege, Glaubenskämpfe und Intrigen hat sie überlebt und steht besser da denn je. Richard Löwenherz, Heinrich VIII. und die Georgs aus Hannover. 45 Min. Oak Island - Fluch und Legende. CDN (Staffel: 7, Folge: 17). Information. Dokureihe.

Program Tv History Recent News Video

History of Television Part 1 (The Race for Television)

Die Dokumentation erzählt die Geschichte von Englands Krone von William dem Eroberer bis Prinz William. Kriege, Glaubenskämpfe und Intrigen hat sie überlebt und steht besser da denn je. Richard Löwenherz, Heinrich VIII. und die Georgs aus Hannover. - Mo Oak Island – Fluch und Legende USA Doku, Report. Oak Island - Fluch und Legende. Teamgeist. HISTORY. Geschichte erleben. Der Pay-TV Sender HISTORY zeigt aufwendige Dokumentationen zu historischen Ereignissen aller Epochen. Every single one of these programs, however, owes its existence to America’s first television program, which was called The Queen’s Messenger. That program was first shown in by WRGB station. We’re not % sure that The Queen’s Messenger was the first TV program shown in America. In , the program was thought to be broadcast only to four television sets. Vezi program tv History Channel online. Aboneaza-te la alerte program tv si vei sti in orice moment cand se difuzeaza emisiunea ta preferata. Andrew Jackson (TV series) Angels and Demons: Decoded; Ape to Man; Apocalypse Man; Apocalypse PA; Armageddon (TV series) Around the World in 80 Ways; Auschwitz Untold; Auto-Maniac; Automobiles; Ax Men; Back to the Blueprint; Band of Brothers; Banned from the Bible; Battle ° Battlefield Detectives; Battles BC; The Beatles On Record; Beltway Unbuckled. Program Tv History - Joi. Arme născute din foc - Ediţia celor care intervin în urgenţe. Program TV stacji HISTORY na 14 dni. Najwygodniejszy przewodnik po programie wszystkich stacji - tutaj sprawdź program telewizyjny HISTORY. The Scottish inventor Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between and Using the UHF spectrum, Eins Und Eins Telefonnummer broadcast a regular schedule of filmed images every day except Sundays and holidays for several years. Also, the imminent participation in the war is believed to have played a role in this decision. In former Czechoslovakia now Slovakia and the Czech Republic the first experimental television sets were produced in Videocipher II used analog scrambling on its video signal and Data Encryption Standard based encryption on its audio signal. Digital TV Liebesgrüße Aus Moskau support more than one program in the same channel bandwidth. By the late s, CRT display technology was largely supplanted worldwide by Monica Gruber displays such as LCD. Springfield Virginia: U. Chicago Tribune. History Channel. Southeast Asia Malaysia TV3 ntv7 8TV TV9 Alphabay Erfahrung Ceria Star Vijay. That TV station aired its first broadcast on July 2, The anodes were the positive terminals and the cathode was the negative terminal. They involved mechanically scanning Weihnachtsgeschenke Für Beste Freundinnen then transmitting those images onto a screen. History original programming.

On March 25, , Baird gave the first public demonstration of televised silhouette images in motion, at Selfridge's Department Store in London.

By January 26, , he demonstrated the transmission of image of a face in motion by radio. This is widely regarded as being the world's first public television demonstration.

Baird's system used the Nipkow disk for both scanning the image and displaying it. A brightly illuminated subject was placed in front of a spinning Nipkow disk set with lenses which swept images across a static photocell.

The thallium sulphide Thalofide cell, developed by Theodore Case in the US, detected the light reflected from the subject and converted it into a proportional electrical signal.

This was transmitted by AM radio waves to a receiver unit, where the video signal was applied to a neon light behind a second Nipkow disk rotating synchronized with the first.

The brightness of the neon lamp was varied in proportion to the brightness of each spot on the image. As each hole in the disk passed by, one scan line of the image was reproduced.

Baird's disk had 30 holes, producing an image with only 30 scan lines, just enough to recognize a human face. In , he became involved in the first experimental mechanical television service in Germany.

In , he made the first outdoor remote broadcast, of The Derby. Baird's mechanical system reached a peak of lines of resolution on BBC television broadcasts in , though for action shots as opposed to a seated presenter the mechanical system did not scan the televised scene directly.

Instead, a An American inventor, Charles Francis Jenkins , also pioneered the television. He published an article on "Motion Pictures by Wireless" in , but it was not until December that he transmitted moving silhouette images for witnesses.

On June 13, , Jenkins publicly demonstrated the synchronized transmission of silhouette pictures. In , Jenkins used a Nipkow disk and transmitted the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion, over a distance of five miles from a naval radio station in Maryland to his laboratory in Washington, D.

On December 25, , Kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated a television system with a line resolution that employed a Nipkow disk scanner and CRT display at Hamamatsu Industrial High School in Japan.

This prototype is still on display at the Takayanagi Memorial Museum at Shizuoka University , Hamamatsu Campus. His work had an influence on the later work of Vladimir K.

In , a team from Bell Telephone Laboratories demonstrated television transmission from Washington to New York, using a prototype flat panel plasma display to make the images visible to an audience.

Herbert E. Ives and Frank Gray of Bell Telephone Laboratories gave a dramatic demonstration of mechanical television on April 7, The reflected-light television system included both small and large viewing screens.

The small receiver had a two-inch-wide by 2. Both sets were capable of reproducing reasonably accurate, monochromatic moving images.

Along with the pictures, the sets also received synchronized sound. The system transmitted images over two paths: first, a copper wire link from Washington to New York City, then a radio link from Whippany, New Jersey.

Comparing the two transmission methods, viewers noted no difference in quality. Subjects of the telecast included Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.

A flying-spot scanner beam illuminated these subjects. The scanner that produced the beam had a aperture disk. The disc revolved at a rate of 18 frames per second, capturing one frame about every 56 milliseconds.

Today's systems typically transmit 30 or 60 frames per second, or one frame every Television historian Albert Abramson underscored the significance of the Bell Labs demonstration: "It was in fact the best demonstration of a mechanical television system ever made to this time.

It would be several years before any other system could even begin to compare with it in picture quality. In , WRGB then W2XB was started as the world's first television station.

It broadcast from the General Electric facility in Schenectady, NY. It was popularly known as " WGY Television". As part of his thesis on May 7, , Theremin electrically transmitted and then projected near-simultaneous moving images on a five-foot square screen.

Because only a limited number of holes could be made in the disks, and disks beyond a certain diameter became impractical, image resolution in mechanical television broadcasts was relatively low, ranging from about 30 lines up to about Nevertheless, the image quality of line transmissions steadily improved with technical advances, and by the UK broadcasts using the Baird system were remarkably clear.

Two of these were the line system that Compagnie des Compteurs CDC installed in Paris in , and the line system that Peck Television Corp.

Anton Codelli 22 March — 28 April , a Slovenian nobleman, was a passionate inventor. Among other things, he had devised a miniature refrigerator for cars and a new rotary engine design.

Intrigued by television, he decided to apply his technical skills to the new medium. At the time, the biggest challenge in television technology was to transmit images with sufficient resolution to reproduce recognizable figures.

As recounted by media historian Melita Zajc, most inventors were determined to increase the number of lines used by their systems — some were approaching what was then the magic number of lines.

But Baron Codelli had a different idea. In , he developed a television device with a single line — but one that formed a continuous spiral on the screen.

Codelli based his ingenious design on his understanding of the human eye. He knew that objects seen in peripheral vision don't need to be as sharp as those in the center.

The baron's mechanical television system, whose image was sharpest in the middle, worked well, and he was soon able to transmit images of his wife, Ilona von Drasche-Lazar, over the air.

Despite the backing of the German electronics giant Telefunken, however, Codelli's television system never became a commercial reality.

Electronic television ultimately emerged as the dominant system, and Codelli moved on to other projects.

His invention was largely forgotten. The advancement of all-electronic television including image dissectors and other camera tubes and cathode ray tubes for the reproducer marked the beginning of the end for mechanical systems as the dominant form of television.

Mechanical TV usually only produced small images. It was the main type of TV until the s. The last mechanical television broadcasts ended in at stations run by a handful of public universities in the United States.

In , J. Thomson , an English physicist , in his three famous experiments was able to deflect cathode rays, a fundamental function of the modern Cathode Ray Tube CRT.

The earliest version of the CRT was invented by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun in and is also known as the Braun tube.

A cathode ray tube was successfully demonstrated as a displaying device by the German Professor Max Dieckmann in , his experimental results were published by the journal Scientific American in Minchin and J.

They had attempted to generate an electrical signal by projecting an image onto a selenium-coated metal plate that was simultaneously scanned by a cathode ray beam.

Miller and J. Strange from EMI , [37] and H. Iams and A. Rose from RCA. Although others had experimented with using a cathode ray tube as a receiver, the concept of using one as a transmitter was novel.

Johnson who gave his name to the term Johnson noise and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric , and became a commercial product in The device was first described in a patent application he filed in Hungary in March for a television system he dubbed "Radioskop".

Although his breakthrough would be incorporated into the design of RCA 's " iconoscope " in , the U. The patent for his receiving tube had been granted the previous October.

Both patents had been purchased by RCA prior to their approval. On December 25, , Kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated a TV system with a line resolution that employed a CRT display at Hamamatsu Industrial High School in Japan.

Takayanagi did not apply for a patent. On September 7, , Philo Farnsworth 's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image, a simple straight line, at his laboratory at Green Street in San Francisco.

This is widely regarded as the first electronic television demonstration. Meanwhile, Vladimir Zworykin was also experimenting with the cathode ray tube to create and show images.

While working for Westinghouse Electric in , he began to develop an electronic camera tube. But in a demonstration, the image was dim, had low contrast and poor definition, and was stationary.

But RCA, which acquired the Westinghouse patent, asserted that the patent for Farnsworth's image dissector was written so broadly that it would exclude any other electronic imaging device.

Thus RCA, on the basis of Zworykin's patent application, filed a patent interference suit against Farnsworth. The U. Patent Office examiner disagreed in a decision, finding priority of invention for Farnsworth against Zworykin.

Farnsworth claimed that Zworykin's system would be unable to produce an electrical image of the type to challenge his patent.

Zworykin received a patent in for a color transmission version of his patent application, [53] he also divided his original application in In RCA introduced an improved camera tube that relied on Tihanyi's charge storage principle.

A problem with the multipactor, unfortunately, was that it wore out at an unsatisfactory rate. At the Berlin Radio Show in August , Manfred von Ardenne gave a public demonstration of a television system using a CRT for both transmission and reception.

However, Ardenne had not developed a camera tube, using the CRT instead as a flying-spot scanner to scan slides and film. In Britain the EMI engineering team led by Isaac Shoenberg applied in for a patent for a new device they dubbed "the Emitron", [66] [67] which formed the heart of the cameras they designed for the BBC.

In November , a line broadcasting service employing the Emitron began at studios in Alexandra Palace , and transmitted from a specially built mast atop one of the Victorian building's towers.

It alternated for a short time with Baird's mechanical system in adjoining studios, but was more reliable and visibly superior.

This was the world's first regular high-definition television service. The original American iconoscope was noisy, had a high ratio of interference to signal, and ultimately gave disappointing results, especially when compared to the high definition mechanical scanning systems then becoming available.

On the other hand, in , Zworykin shared some patent rights with the German licensee company Telefunken. This tube is essentially identical to the super-Emitron.

Indeed, it was the representative of the European tradition in electronic tubes competing against the American tradition represented by the image orthicon.

American television broadcasting at the time consisted of a variety of markets in a wide range of sizes, each competing for programming and dominance with separate technology, until deals were made and standards agreed upon in The world's first line television standard was designed in the Soviet Union in , and became a national standard in In , James P Mitchell described, prototyped and demonstrated what was perhaps the earliest monochromatic flat panel LED television display LED Display targeted at replacing the CRT.

The basic idea of using three monochrome images to produce a color image had been experimented with almost as soon as black-and-white televisions had first been built.

Older televisions have the RGB Red-Green-Blue color scheme while modern televisions focus on LEDs to create the image.

Among the earliest published proposals for television was one by Maurice Le Blanc in for a color system, including the first mentions in television literature of line and frame scanning, although he gave no practical details.

But his system contained no means of analyzing the spectrum of colors at the transmitting end, and could not have worked as he described it.

The first color television project is claimed by him, [98] and was patented in Germany on March 31, , patent No.

Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color transmission on July 3, , using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each spiral with filters of a different primary color; and three light sources at the receiving end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination.

Mechanically scanned color television was also demonstrated by Bell Laboratories in June using three complete systems of photoelectric cells , amplifiers, glow-tubes and color filters, with a series of mirrors to superimpose the red, green and blue images into one full color image.

The first practical hybrid system was again pioneered by John Logie Baird. In he publicly demonstrated a color television combining a traditional black-and-white display with a rotating colored disc.

This device was very "deep", but was later improved with a mirror folding the light path into an entirely practical device resembling a large conventional console.

In , Hungarian engineer Peter Carl Goldmark introduced an electro-mechanical system while at CBS , which contained an Iconoscope sensor.

The CBS field-sequential color system was partly mechanical, with a disc made of red, blue, and green filters spinning inside the television camera at 1, rpm, and a similar disc spinning in synchronization in front of the cathode ray tube inside the receiver set.

CBS began experimental color field tests using film as early as August 28, , and live cameras by November CBS began daily color field tests on June 1, The War Production Board halted the manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from April 22, , to August 20, , limiting any opportunity to introduce color television to the general public.

As early as , Baird had started work on a fully electronic system he called the " Telechrome ". Early Telechrome devices used two electron guns aimed at either side of a phosphor plate.

Using cyan and magenta phosphors, a reasonable limited-color image could be obtained. He also demonstrated the same system using monochrome signals to produce a 3D image called "stereoscopic" at the time.

A demonstration on August 16, was the first example of a practical color television system. Work on the Telechrome continued and plans were made to introduce a three-gun version for full color.

This used a patterned version of the phosphor plate, with the guns aimed at ridges on one side of the plate.

However, Baird's untimely death in ended development of the Telechrome system. Similar concepts were common through the s and s, differing primarily in the way they re-combined the colors generated by the three guns.

The Geer tube was similar to Baird's concept, but used small pyramids with the phosphors deposited on their outside faces, instead of Baird's 3D patterning on a flat surface.

The Penetron used three layers of phosphor on top of each other and increased the power of the beam to reach the upper layers when drawing those colors.

The Chromatron used a set of focusing wires to select the colored phosphors arranged in vertical stripes on the tube. One of the great technical challenges of introducing color broadcast television was the desire to conserve bandwidth , potentially three times that of the existing black-and-white standards, and not use an excessive amount of radio spectrum.

In the United States, after considerable research, the National Television Systems Committee [] approved an all-electronic Compatible color system developed by RCA , which encoded the color information separately from the brightness information and greatly reduced the resolution of the color information in order to conserve bandwidth.

The brightness image remained compatible with existing black-and-white television sets at slightly reduced resolution, while color televisions could decode the extra information in the signal and produce a limited-resolution color display.

The higher resolution black-and-white and lower resolution color images combine in the brain to produce a seemingly high-resolution color image. The NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement.

Although all-electronic color was introduced in the U. The first national color broadcast the Tournament of Roses Parade occurred on January 1, , but during the following ten years most network broadcasts, and nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white.

It was not until the mids that color sets started selling in large numbers, due in part to the color transition of in which it was announced that over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color that fall.

The first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In , the last holdout among daytime network programs converted to color, resulting in the first completely all-color network season.

Early color sets were either floor-standing console models or tabletop versions nearly as bulky and heavy, so in practice they remained firmly anchored in one place.

The introduction of GE's relatively compact and lightweight Porta-Color set in the spring of made watching color television a more flexible and convenient proposition.

In , sales of color sets finally surpassed sales of black-and-white sets. By the mids, the only stations broadcasting in black-and-white were a few high-numbered UHF stations in small markets, and a handful of low-power repeater stations in even smaller markets such as vacation spots.

By , even the last of these had converted to color, and by the early s black-and-white sets had been pushed into niche markets, notably low-power uses, small portable sets, or use as video monitor screens in lower-cost consumer equipment.

By the late s even these areas switched to color sets. Digital television DTV is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal, in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog television.

Digital TV can support more than one program in the same channel bandwidth. Digital TV's roots have been tied very closely to the availability of inexpensive, high-performance computers.

It wasn't until the s that digital TV became a real possibility. In the mids Japanese consumer electronics firm Sony Corporation developed HDTV technology and the equipment to record at such resolution , and the MUSE analog format proposed by NHK , a Japanese broadcaster, was seen as a pacesetter that threatened to eclipse U.

Sony's system produced images at line resolution or in digital terms, x, close to the resolution of Full HD video [] Until June , the Japanese MUSE standard—based on an analog system—was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration.

Then, an American company, General Instrument, demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal. This breakthrough was of such significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed.

In March , when it became clear that a digital standard was feasible, the FCC made a number of critical decisions. First, the Commission declared that the new ATV standard must be more than an enhanced analog signal, but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images.

Then, to ensure that viewers who did not wish to buy a new digital television set could continue to receive conventional television broadcasts, it dictated that the new ATV standard must be capable of being "simulcast" on different channels.

The new ATV standard also allowed the new DTV signal to be based on entirely new design principles. Although incompatible with the existing NTSC standard, the new DTV standard would be able to incorporate many improvements.

The final standard adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios, or lines of resolution.

This outcome resulted from a dispute between the consumer electronics industry joined by some broadcasters and the computer industry joined by the film industry and some public interest groups over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—is superior.

Interlaced scanning, which is used in televisions worldwide, scans even-numbered lines first, then odd-numbered ones. Progressive scanning, which is the format used in computers, scans lines in sequences, from top to bottom.

The computer industry argued that progressive scanning is superior because it does not "flicker" in the manner of interlaced scanning.

It also argued that progressive scanning enables easier connections with the Internet, and is more cheaply converted to interlaced formats than vice versa.

The film industry also supported progressive scanning because it offers a more efficient means of converting filmed programming into digital formats.

For their part, the consumer electronics industry and broadcasters argued that interlaced scanning was the only technology that could transmit the highest quality pictures then feasible, that is, lines per picture and pixels per line.

William F. Schreiber, who was a director of the Advanced Television Research Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from until his retirement in , thought that the continued advocacy of interlaced equipment originated from consumer electronics companies that were trying to get back the substantial investments they made in the interlaced technology.

Digital television transition started in the late s. All the governments across the world set the deadline for analog shutdown by the s.

Initially the adoption rate was low. But soon, more and more households were converting to digital televisions. The transition was expected to be complete worldwide by the mid to late s.

Advent of digital television allowed innovations like smart TVs. A smart television, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid television , is a television set with integrated Internet and Web 2.

Besides the traditional functions of television sets and set-top boxes provided through traditional broadcasting media , these devices can also provide Internet TV, online interactive media , over-the-top content , as well as on-demand streaming media , and home networking access.

These TVs come pre-loaded with an operating system. Smart TV should not to be confused with Internet TV , IPTV or with Web TV.

Internet television refers to the receiving television content over internet instead of traditional systems terrestrial, cable and satellite although internet itself is received by these methods.

Internet Protocol television IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters.

Web television WebTV is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV. A first patent was filed in [] and extended the following year [] for an "intelligent" television system, linked with data processing systems, by means of a digital or analog network.

Apart from being linked to data networks, one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines, according to a user's demand, and process their needs.

Major TV manufacturers have announced production of smart TVs only, for middle-end and high-end TVs in Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on August 10, , by John Logie Baird in his company's premises at Long Acre, London.

The first 3D TV was produced in The advent of digital television in the s greatly improved 3D TVs. Although 3D TV sets are quite popular for watching 3D home media such as on Blu-ray discs, 3D programming has largely failed to make inroads among the public.

Many 3D television channels that started in the early s were shut down by the mids. Programming is broadcast by television stations , sometimes called "channels", as stations are licensed by their governments to broadcast only over assigned channels in the television band.

At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be widely distributed, and because bandwidth was limited, i. It began television broadcasting in Canada in September The first broadcast was on September 6, from its Montreal station CBFT.

The premiere broadcast was bilingual, spoken in English and French. Two days later, on September 8, , the Toronto station CBLT went on the air.

This became the English-speaking flagship station for the country, while CBFT became the French-language flagship after a second English-language station was licensed to CBC in Montreal later in the decade.

The CBC's first privately owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, Ontario , launched in October at the time, all private stations were expected to affiliate with the CBC, a condition that was relaxed in —61 when CTV, Canada's second national English-language network, was formed.

In former Czechoslovakia now Slovakia and the Czech Republic the first experimental television sets were produced in In the same year the first TV- transmission was performed.

The first regular TV public transmission started on May 1, The state-owned TV-centers were in Prague , Bratislava , Brno and Ostrava. In more than a million citizens had a television set.

In , Czechoslovak television had three channels: Czech, Slovak and a bilingual Federal Channel. In , color broadcasting started.

The first experiments in television broadcasting began in France in the s, although the French did not immediately employ the new technology.

The first official channel of French television appeared on February 13, , the date of the official inauguration of television in France, which was broadcast in 60 lines from to pm.

On November 10, George Mandel , Minister of Posts, inaugurated the first broadcast in lines from the transmitter of the Eiffel Tower.

On the 18th, Susy Wincker, the first announcer since the previous June, carried out a demonstration for the press from to pm. Broadcasts became regular from January 4, from to am and to pm during the week, and from to pm on Sundays.

In July , a decree defined for three years a standard of lines VHF whereas three standards were used for the experiments: lines for Gramont, lines for the Compagnie des Compteurs and for Thomson.

In , there were about only to individual television sets, some of which were also available in a few public places. With the entry of France into World War II the same year, broadcasts ceased and the transmitter of the Eiffel Tower was sabotaged.

On September 3, , French television was seized by the German occupation forces. A technical agreement was signed by the Compagnie des Compteurs and Telefunken , and a financing agreement for the resuming of the service is signed by German Ministry of Post and Radiodiffusion Nationale Vichy 's radio.

On May 7, at evening broadcasts. One thousand line sets, most of which were installed in soldiers' hospitals, picked up the broadcasts.

These Nazi-controlled television broadcasts from the Eiffel Tower in Paris were able to be received on the south coast of England by R.

On October 1, , television service resumed after the liberation of Paris. The broadcasts were transmitted from the Cognacq-Jay studios.

In October , after repairs, the transmitter of the Eiffel Tower was back in service. Besides France, this standard was later adopted by Algeria, Monaco, and Morocco.

Electromechanical broadcasts began in Germany in , but were without sound until Network electronic service started on March 22, , on lines using telecine transmission of film, intermediate film system , or cameras using the Nipkow Disk.

Transmissions using cameras based on the iconoscope began on January 15, The Berlin Summer Olympic Games were televised, using both all-electronic iconoscope-based cameras and intermediate film cameras, to Berlin and Hamburg in August Twenty-eight public television rooms were opened for anybody who did not own a television set.

The Germans had a line system on the air in February , and during World War II brought it to France, where they broadcast from the Eiffel Tower.

After the end of World War II, the victorious Allies imposed a general ban on all radio and television broadcasting in Germany.

Radio broadcasts for information purposes were soon permitted again, but television broadcasting was allowed to resume only in Transmissions began on December 21, using the line standard developed in the Soviet Union in , although at that time there were probably no more than 75 television receivers capable of receiving the programming.

In West Germany, the British occupation forces as well as NWDR Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk , which had started work in the British zone straight after the war, agreed to the launch of a television station.

Even before this, German television specialists had agreed on lines as the future standard. When color was introduced, West Germany chose a variant of the NTSC color system, modified by Walter Bruch and called PAL.

East Germany accepted the French SECAM system, which was used in Eastern European countries. With the reunification of Germany, it was decided to switch to the PAL color system.

The system was changed in December In Italy, the first experimental tests on television broadcasts were made in Turin since The city already hosted the Center for Management of the EIAR lately renamed as RAI at the premises of the Theatre of Turin.

Subsequently, the EAIR established offices in Rome and Milan. On July 22, comes into operation in Rome the first television transmitter at the EIAR station, which performed a regular broadcast for about a year using a line system that was developed in Germany.

In September of the same year, a second television transmitter was installed in Milan, making experimental broadcasts during major events in the city.

The broadcasts were suddenly ended on May 31, , by order of the government, allegedly because of interferences encountered in the first air navigation systems.

Also, the imminent participation in the war is believed to have played a role in this decision. EIAR transmitting equipment was relocated to Germany by the German troops.

Lately, it was returned to Italy. Television broadcasting in Japan started on August 28, , [] making the country one of the first in the world with an experimental television service.

The first television tests were conducted as early as using a combined mechanical Nipkow disk and electronic Braun tube system, later switching to an all-electronic system in using a domestically developed iconoscope system.

Regular television broadcasts would eventually start in In , NHK first developed a consumer high-definition television with a display aspect ratio.

Satellite test broadcasts started in , with regular testing starting in and regular broadcasting of BS -9ch commenced on November 25, , which featured commercial and NHK television programming.

Sony first demonstrated a wideband analog high-definition television system HDTV capable video camera, monitor and video tape recorder VTR in April at an international meeting of television engineers in Algiers.

The Sony HDVS range was launched in April , with the HDC camera, HDV video recorder and HDS video switcher all working in the line component video format with interlaced video and a aspect ratio.

The first testing television station in Mexico signed on in When KFMB-TV in San Diego signed on in , Baja California became the first state to receive a commercial television station over the air.

Within a year, the Mexican government would adopt the U. In , the first commercial television station within Mexico, XHTV in Mexico City, signed on the air, followed by XEW-TV in and XHGC in Those three were not only the first television stations in the country, but also the flagship stations of Telesistema Mexicano , which was formed in The earliest 3D television broadcasts in the world were broadcast over XHGC in Color television was introduced in , also over XHGC-TV.

One of Telesistema Mexicano's earliest broadcasts as a network, over XEW-TV, on June 25, , was the first international North American broadcast in the medium's history, and was jointly aired with NBC in the United States, where it aired as the premiere episode of Wide Wide World , and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Except for a brief period between and , nearly every commercial television station in Mexico, with exceptions in the border cities, was expected to affiliate with a subnetwork of Telesistema Mexicano or its successor, Televisa formed by the merger of Telesistema Mexicano and Television Independiente de Mexico.

This condition would not be relaxed for good until , when Imevision was privatized to become TV Azteca. The Soviet Union began offering line electromechanical test broadcasts in Moscow on October 31, , and a commercially manufactured television set in First electronic television system on lines at 25 fps was created in the beginning of in Leningrad St.

In September the experimental Leningrad TV Center OLTC was put in action. OLTC worked with lines at 25 fps progressive scan. In Moscow, experimental transmissions of electronic television took place on March 9, , using equipment manufactured by RCA.

Regular broadcasting began on December 31, It was quickly realized that lines of resolution offered by this format would have become insufficient in the long run, thus a specification for line format at 25 fps interlaced was developed in Television broadcasts were suspended during Great Patriotic War.

In , while the war was still raging, a new standard, offering lines of vertical resolution was prepared. This format was ultimately accepted as a national standard.

The transmissions in line format started in Moscow on November 4, Regular broadcasting began on June 16, Details for this standard were formalized in specification called GOST , basic parameters for black-and-white television broadcast.

Starting in , broadcasting in the line standard was introduced in other major cities of the Soviet Union. Color television broadcast started in , using SECAM color system.

The first Turkish television channel, ITU TV , was launched in The first national television is TRT 1 and was launched in Color television was introduced in Before there was the only channel, the state broadcasting company TRT, and it broadcast in several times of the dateline.

Turkey 's first private television channel Star started it broadcast on 26 May Until then there was only one television channel controlled by the state, but with the wave of liberalization, privately owned broadcasting began.

Three services dominate the multi-channel market: the satellite platforms Digitürk and D-Smart and the cable TV service Türksat. The first British television broadcast was made by Baird Television's electromechanical system over the BBC radio transmitter in September Baird provided a limited amount of programming five days a week by During this time, Southampton earned the distinction of broadcasting the first-ever live television interview, which featured Peggy O'Neil, an actress and singer from Buffalo, New York.

On November 2, , the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular high-definition service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London.

It was a dual-system service, alternating between Marconi-EMI's line standard and Baird's improved line standard, from Alexandra Palace in London.

The BBC Television Service continues to this day. The government, on advice from a special advisory committee, decided that Marconi-EMI's electronic system gave the superior picture, and the Baird system was dropped in February TV broadcasts in London were on the air an average of four hours daily from to There were 12, to 15, receivers.

Some sets in restaurants or bars might have viewers for sport events Dunlap, p The outbreak of the Second World War caused the BBC service to be abruptly suspended on September 1, , at pm, after a Mickey Mouse cartoon and test signals were broadcast, [] so that transmissions could not be used as a beacon to guide enemy aircraft to London.

How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh? The first live satellite signal to Britain from the United States was broadcast via the Telstar satellite on July 23, WRGB claims to be the world's oldest television station , tracing its roots to an experimental station founded on January 13, , broadcasting from the General Electric factory in Schenectady, NY , under the call letters W2XB.

Later in , General Electric started a second facility, this one in New York City, which had the call letters W2XBS and which today is known as WNBC.

The two stations were experimental in nature and had no regular programming, as receivers were operated by engineers within the company.

The image of a Felix the Cat doll rotating on a turntable was broadcast for 2 hours every day for several years as new technology was being tested by the engineers.

The first regularly scheduled television service in the United States began on July 2, , fifteen months before the United Kingdom.

The Federal Radio Commission authorized C. Jenkins to broadcast from experimental station W3XK in Wheaton, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.

C [ citation needed ]. For at least the first eighteen months, line silhouette images from motion picture film were broadcast, although beginning in the summer of he occasionally broadcast in halftones.

Hugo Gernsback 's New York City radio station began a regular, if limited, schedule of live television broadcasts on August 14, , using line images.

Working with only one transmitter, the station alternated radio broadcasts with silent television images of the station's call sign , faces in motion, and wind-up toys in motion.

General Electric 's experimental station in Schenectady, New York , on the air sporadically since January 13, , was able to broadcast reflected-light, line images via shortwave as far as Los Angeles , and by September was making four television broadcasts weekly.

It is considered to be the direct predecessor of current television station WRGB. The Queen's Messenger , a one-act play broadcast on September 11, , was the world's first live drama on television.

Radio giant RCA began daily experimental television broadcasts in New York City in March over station W2XBS , the predecessor of current television station WNBC.

The line transmissions consisted of pictures, signs, and views of persons and objects. General Broadcasting System 's WGBS radio and W2XCR television aired their regular broadcasting debut in New York City on April 26, , with a special demonstration set up in Aeolian Hall at Fifth Avenue and Fifty-fourth Street.

Appearing were boxer Primo Carnera , actors Gertrude Lawrence , Louis Calhern , Frances Upton and Lionel Atwill , WHN announcer Nils Granlund , the Forman Sisters , and a host of others.

CBS 's New York City station W2XAB began broadcasting their first regular seven-day-a-week television schedule on July 21, , with a line electromechanical system.

The first broadcast included Mayor Jimmy Walker , the Boswell Sisters , Kate Smith , and George Gershwin. The service ended in February Using the UHF spectrum, it broadcast a regular schedule of filmed images every day except Sundays and holidays for several years.

By , low-definition electromechanical television broadcasting had ceased in the United States except for a handful of stations run by public universities that continued to The Federal Communications Commission FCC saw television in the continual flux of development with no consistent technical standards, hence all such stations in the U.

Just as importantly, Philo Farnsworth's August demonstration of an all-electronic system at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia pointed out the direction of television's future.

By October, W6XAO was making daily television broadcasts of films. By RCA increased the definition to interlaced lines and the frame rate to 30 per second.

Irregularly scheduled broadcasts continued through and In RCA raised the frame definition to lines, and its executives petitioned the FCC for approval of the standard.

From May through December , the New York City NBC station W2XBS of RCA broadcast twenty to fifty-eight hours of programming per month, Wednesday through Sunday of each week.

Coaxial cable was used to cover events at Madison Square Garden. The FCC adopted NTSC television engineering standards on May 2, , calling for lines of vertical resolution, 30 frames per second with interlaced scanning , 60 fields per second, and sound carried by frequency modulation.

Sets sold since that were built for slightly lower resolution could still be adjusted to receive the new standard.

Dunlap, p The FCC saw television ready for commercial licensing, and the first such licenses were issued to NBC- and CBS-owned stations in New York on July 1, , followed by Philco 's station WPTZ in Philadelphia.

In the U. By contrast, the United Kingdom chose a different route, imposing a television license fee on owners of television reception equipment to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC , which had public service as part of its Royal Charter.

The first official, paid advertising to appear on American commercial television occurred on the afternoon of July 1, , over New York station WNBT now WNBC before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies.

The Bulova logo, with the phrase "Bulova Watch Time", was shown in the lower right-hand quadrant of the test pattern while the second hand swept around the dial for one minute.

After the U. Most TV stations suspended broadcasting; of the ten original television stations only six continued through the war.

In , there were 5, sets in operation, but production of new TVs, radios, and other broadcasting equipment for civilian purposes was suspended from April to August Dunlap.

Following the rapid rise of television after the war, the Federal Communications Commission was flooded with applications for television station licenses.

With more applications than available television channels, the FCC ordered a freeze on processing station applications in that remained in effect until April 14, By , the networks stretched from New York to the Mississippi River , and by to the West Coast.

Commercial color television broadcasts began on CBS in with a field-sequential color system that was suspended four months later for technical and economic reasons.

The television industry's National Television System Committee NTSC developed a color television system based on RCA technology that was compatible with existing black and white receivers, and commercial color broadcasts reappeared in Cable television is a system of broadcasting television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency RF signals transmitted through coaxial cables or light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

This contrasts with traditional terrestrial television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television.

FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables.

The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes.

The origins of cable broadcasting are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as Early cable television was analog, but since the s all cable operators have switched to, or are in the process of switching to, digital cable television.

Satellite television is a system of supplying television programming using broadcast signals relayed from communication satellites. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic reflector antenna usually referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter LNB.

A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be external set-top boxes , or a built-in television tuner.

Satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services, especially to geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television.

The most common method of reception is direct-broadcast satellite television DBSTV , also known as "direct to home" DTH.

These systems received analog signals transmitted in the C-band spectrum from FSS type satellites, and required the use of large dishes.

Consequently, these systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, and were more expensive and less popular. The direct-broadcast satellite television signals were earlier analog signals and later digital signals, both of which require a compatible receiver.

Digital signals may include high-definition television HDTV. Some transmissions and channels are free-to-air or free-to-view , while many other channels are pay television requiring a subscription.

Clarke proposed a worldwide communications system that would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in earth orbit.

The first satellite television signals from Europe to North America were relayed via the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic ocean on July 23, The world's first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I and nicknamed "Early Bird", was launched into geosynchronous orbit on April 6, The transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use.

In the Soviet Union, the Moskva or Moscow system of broadcasting and delivering of TV signals via satellites was launched in Stationary and mobile downlink stations with parabolic antennas In the United States, the satellite television industry developed from the cable television industry as communication satellites were being used to distribute television programming to remote cable television headends.

Home Box Office HBO , Turner Broadcasting System TBS , and Christian Broadcasting Network CBN, later The Family Channel were among the first to use satellite television to deliver programming.

Taylor Howard of San Andreas , California became the first person to receive C-band satellite signals with his home-built system in Early satellite television systems were not very popular due to their expense and large dish size.

By , satellite television was well established in the USA and Europe. Program tv Discovery Channel. Program tv Acasa.

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